Stress is the body’s reaction to any change that disturbs our internal or external environment. Physical, mental, or emotional stress can cause various reactions in the human body. Although stress levels vary from person to person, most people experience some sort of physical or mental reaction. Stress is most often associated with feelings such as anxiety and nervousness.
Some effects of stress are immediate, while others may not start until long after the stressor has occurred. Let’s take a look at some of the possible effects of stress on the body.
The physical symptoms of stress are varied and may include headache, rapid heartbeat, muscle tension, stomach upset, and fatigue. The immediate physical response to stress is known as the “fight-or-flight” response. It prepares a person to deal with various circumstances that you may encounter in an emergency. The fight-or-flight response is a complex reaction that prepares a person to handle stress. Here are some of the most common physical responses to stress.
The heart responds to stress by beating more rapidly and with greater force. As a result, blood pressure may increase, and the person may also feel lightheaded or weak.
Stress can sometimes lead to nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. Stress can also cause ulcers in the stomach or intestines.
Muscles tense up in preparation for strenuous activity. Stress can also cause muscle aches and twitches.
Stress might lead to fatigue, especially when it is constant or excessive. The person may not get enough rest at night, despite being tired because of the stress experienced during the day.
The mind is affected by stress in several ways. People may become moody and irritable, which can affect relationships with loved ones, friends, or coworkers. It can also lead to forgetfulness or memory loss or make it difficult to concentrate.
Left untreated, these mental effects can become even more serious. They may lead to or worsen the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and other mental illnesses. It can also lead to substance abuse, which can cause additional mental and physical side effects.
Emotions such as frustration, sadness, and grief may surface. A person might also feel lonely or helpless when faced with stressful conditions. Stress can also cause emotional symptoms, such as feelings of irritability or anger. These emotions are often caused by the release of hormones during stress.
Hormone levels change during periods of stress. The body responds to perceived threats by releasing hormones like cortisol and epinephrine (also called adrenaline). These hormones trigger the fight-or-flight response for dealing with danger or stressful conditions. Cortisol is produced in the adrenal glands located on top of the kidneys. It is an integral part of the hormone system that maintains homeostasis (balance) by regulating metabolism, blood pressure, immune function, and inflammation.
Stress can also affect people long-term, including increased susceptibility to illness, weight gain, fatigue, irritability, sleep problems, and headaches. Stress may even impact fertility in some people.
Chronic stress can lead to heart disease, hypertension (high blood pressure), obesity, ulcers, and other stomach problems, migraine headaches, and other health concerns. It can also contribute to a person’s sense of depression or anxiety.
Stress is a part of life, but there are many things people can do to reduce stress.
People must recognize the early signs and symptoms of stress to take action. There are healthy ways to deal with stress, including:
Getting regular exercise is an essential part of stress reduction. Yoga, tai chi, and other movements that increase flexibility can also be beneficial. Playing sports like football, rugby, basketball, swimming, tennis, and hockey is another fun and exciting way to exercise. Other disciplines that could help you exercise regularly are martial arts.
Meditation, prayer, or massage are some examples of relaxation techniques. Aromatherapy is a relaxation technique that uses essential oils from plants to affect mood and emotions. Taking hot baths or showers, listening to music, reading, spending time with family and friends are also suitable for relaxation.
Cultivating supportive relationships with family members, friends or coworkers can be vital to reducing stress. Developing positive interactions with others through these supports will make people feel less stressed.
Eating healthy foods is vital for overall health as well as reducing stress. Making time to eat, choosing healthy foods, and staying hydrated are necessary parts of stress management. Spending time outdoors also has health benefits, including reducing stress.
Recognizing the signs and symptoms of stress is very important. Isolating oneself or keeping everything bottled up might seem like a good idea when one feels stressed out, but it often makes things worse. Those feeling stressed should consider some of the tips above to reduce stress before symptoms get out of control.